The main idea is that, in order to evolve, mankind - if stimulated
by a high degree of cultural and spiritual energy - will invent suitable
technologies, some of which prevail (while others disappear). If the level
of civilisation is high, creativity and ingeniousness develop technologies
in line with quality of life.
unique scientific and technical principles of Pharaoh Tut Ankh Amunís
chariots, remarkable for that time, consist of a combination of practical
aspects with the design characteristics of the wheels, the naves, the
bearings and the pole between the cart and the yoke. In fact, Pharaoh Tut
Ankh Amunís chariots offer features of softness and comfort not unlike
those of the most modern transportation carts. In fact, the wheels are
flexible with respect to the body and offer a high degree of functionalism
vis-a-vis bending and perturbations due to ground irregularities. The
wheels are elastic because the rims and spokes are elastic thus offering a
remarkable level of comfort during both slow and fast motion. The coupling
between wheel and the axle is built with low friction, durable bearings.
When the outer surface of chariot axles and the internal surface of the
bearings are in wood, animal grease, which reduces friction and increases
running duration, has been used. Chariots with wooden axles and internal
hub surfaces covered by metal are more durable with increased mechanical
Some mechanical aspects of the structure of the wheels,
the spokes, the materials chosen for the sleeve bearings, the use of
animal grease for lubrication and the design of the chariot as a whole are
extraordinary, being, in fact, very similar to some of the most modern
technical and scientific principles used in machine mechanics today
- Wheel structure elasticity to absorb
uniformly the variable loads transmitted by soil irregularity so that
the vibrations are damped by the wheel itself.
- Dynamic load, cleverly reduced due to
the mediated friction effect of the grease, in order to ensure smooth,
regular chariot motion.
- The concept that the symmetrical shape
of the wheel spokes and division of the internal loads between the hub
and the rim permit smooth motion, both at low and high speeds.
- Tribology and friction dynamics.
- Pivot support design concepts, with a
long length in order to provide low flexibility to the sleeve and to
accurately divide dynamic pressure during contact.
the infrared ray analysis conducted on the internal surfaces of the wheel
hub and on the outer surface of the axle pivot, in correspondence to the
sleeve bearing, Dr. Nasry Iskander determined that animal grease had been
In a similar calculation made with reference to Pharaoh Tut Ankh
Amunís chariot, although the parameters are similar, differences with
Ittite carts are substantially due to the effect of the spoke. In fact,
the wheel spoke is built not with a rectilinear rod, with one single body,
but in 2 parts, which are the columns of two different arcs. The wheel
spokes of Pharaoh Tut Ankh Amunís chariots are formed by an arch of wood;
each of the two sides contribute to forming one wheel spoke.
The functionalism and mechanical efficiency
of the chariots could be the result of a lucky series of technological
coincidences (flexible wheels, compliant spokes, long hubs, friction
surfaces between a hard body and a soft body to favor dynamic coupling and
duration and center of gravity position close to the axles). The wheels
are light, elastic and fit well against the ground. This is the first
concept of a tyre ( i.e. an element that can be adapted to soil
irregularities) at a time when the science of mechanics, the study of
vibrations and of structure dynamics had no written basis, either from a
technological or theoretical point of view. Nevertheless, such performance
could be justified by scientific and technical results as studies of
science of mechanics, even if theoretical studies on mechanics and on
friction only assumed an organized structure through the use of scientific
methods in the XIXth Century.